Violence in sports can be categorized into four categories:
- Brutal Body Contact is physical contact that is deemed within the parameters of the game and the sport’s rules. An example would be a hard check in hockey or a tackle in football.
- Borderline Violence is a physical act that violates the game’s rules and causes bodily injury but is still generally accepted by participants and spectators. An example may be elbowing an opponent while jostling for rebounding position in a basketball game.
- Quasi-Criminal Violence is an act that violates the sport’s rules and possibly criminal laws. An example would be punching someone in the head during a soccer game.
- Criminal Violence is an extreme act that causes severe physical harm or even death and almost always results in criminal charges. An example would be a fight during a baseball game that results in a player going into a coma.
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* Model courtesy of Sociologist, Dr. Michael Smith